Mosses, Lichens & Ferns of the West Virginia Botanic Garden

This list was compiled Sue Moyle Studlar, formerly of the WVU Biology Department, for a Moss, Lichen, & Fern Walk at the Garden in September 2014.

 

Mosses

Liverworts

Lichens

Club Mosses

Ferns

Club Mosses

Ferns

Mosses

(Alphabetical by Genus)
  • Amblystegium varium. Tangled Thread-moss. Tree trunks, tree bases, logs, soil.
  • Anomodon attenuatus. Poodle Moss. Rocks & tree bases.
  • Anomodon rostratus. Yellow Yarn Moss. Rocks & tree bases.
  • Atrichum angustatum. Slender Starburst Moss. Disturbed soil, tree mounds, trail banks
  • Atrichum crispum. Crispy Starburst Moss. Peaty soil along streams. Mud, edge of reservoir.
  • Atrichum altecristatum (undulatum).Wavy Starburst Moss. Moist seepy soil.
  • Aulacomnium palustre. Ribbed Bog-moss. Wetlands, marshes.
  • **Barbula unguiculata. Bear-claw moss. Calcareous soil, open disturbed areas.
  • Brachythecium laetum. Pleated Foxtail Moss. Soil, rocks, tree bases.
  • Brachythecium campestre (formerly listed as B. salebrosum). Field Foxtail Moss. Soil, rocks, & tree bases. Distribution uncertain. Genus recently revised.
  • ***Brotherella recurvans. Satin Moss. Decorticated logs under hemlocks. Eastern North America & Eastern Asia; Disjunct Distribution.
  • *Bryoandersonia illecebra. Worm Moss. Trail- & streambanks/. Eastern North America
  • Bryhnia novae-angliae. Bonsai Moss. Soil, rotten logs, rocks, stream banks & seepy places.
  • ***Callicladium haldanianum. Sword Moss. Rotten wood. . Eastern North America & Eastern Asia; Disjunct Distribution.
    Ceratodon purpureus. Purple Moss. Disturbed soil.
  • Dicranella varia. Variable Fine Hair Moss. Circumboreal & northern Africa. Moist clayey soil by streams. By culvert in reservoir.
  • Dicranella heteromalla. Fine Hair Moss. Rocks, trailbanks, streambanks.
  • Dicranodontium denudatum. Naked Windblown Moss. Rock Outcrop WVBG.
  • Dicranum fulvum. Boulder Broom Moss. Shaded acidic rock.
  • **Dicranum scoparium. Windswept Broom Moss. Moist soil, rotten wood by trails.
  • Dicranum montanum. Crispy Broom Moss. Cloaks old trees by creeks. Logs, stumps.
  • Dicranum polysetum. Wrinkled Broom Moss. Soil over rocks, open woods. By reservoir.
  • **Diphyscium foliosum. Nut Moss. Banks of trails & streams.
  • Ditrichum pallidum. Saffron Moss. Old fields, clearings & roadsides.
  • Ditrichum pusillum. Little Saffron Moss. Sandy clayey soil by trails. Edge of reservoir.
  • *Ditrichum rhynchostegium. Beaked Saffron Moss. Old fields, clearings & roadsides.
  • ***Entodon seductrix. Cord Glaze Moss. Tree bases, rocks, soil in open areas.
  • Fissidens bryoioides. Pixie Pocket Moss. Sandstone rocks in streams.
  • Fissidens dubius. Cockscomb Pocket Moss. Tree-bases, rocks, soil.
  • *Fissidens subbasilaris. Tree Pocket Moss. Tree bases. Eastern North America
  • *Fissidens taxifolius. Yew Pocket Moss. Damp soil, often along creeks.
  • **Funaria hygrometrica. Bonfire Moss. Charcoal, disturbed soil.
  • Hygrohypnum eugyrium. Swollen Brook Moss. Wet rocks in & by streams. Spillway.
  • Hypnum imponens. Flat Braid Moss. Moist soil, rocks, & logs.
  • Hypnum lindbergii. Pale Braid Moss. Seepy often base-rich habitats.
  • *Leucobryum albidum. Small Pincushion Moss. Small White Cushion Moss. Similar habitat to L. glaucum. Smaller than L. glaucum.. Eastern North America, extending to tropical South America.
  • Leucobryum glaucum. Pincushion Moss. White Cushion Moss. Soil by streams & trails, rotten stumps; often on ridgetops.
  • Mnium hornum. Lipstick Thyme Moss. Longleaf Mnium. Sandy acidic streambanks, hemlock forests.
  • Paraleucobryum longifolium. Silver Broom Moss. Moist acidic rock, tree bases.
  • Plagiomnium cuspidatum. Baby Tooth Moss. Common Woodsy Mnium. Soil, tree bases, & rocks.
  • Plagiothecium denticulatum. Toothed Silk Moss. Rotten wood, tree bases and soil in wetlands.
  • Platygyrium repens. Brocade Moss. Rotten logs and tree trunks
  • *Pogonatum pensilvanicum. Velvet Haircap Moss. Steep moist banks & earth mounds (windthrow). Eastern North America and tropical America.
  • **Polytrichum commune. Common Haircap Moss. Moist to wet soil, usually acidic. Readily invades disturbed ground such as old reservoir basin.
  • Polytrichum ohioense. Ohio Haircap Moss. Soil, soil over rocks & stumps.
  • Pseudotaxiphyllum elegans. Sprouting Silk Moss. Moist shaded acidic cliffs. Rock Outcrop.
  • Pseudotaxiphyllum distichaceum. HookedSilk Moss. Circumboreal & Latin American, missing from Europe. Moist cliff ledges on acidic rock. Below Spillway under hemlocks,
  • **Ptychostomum (Bryum) pseudotriquetrum. Marsh Cardinal Moss. Wetlands.
  • *Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostre. Gentle Moss. Rotten logs & acidic bark. Eastern North America, mainly Appalachian-Ozarkian.
  • Rhabodweisia crispata. Fireworks Moss. Moist shaded acidic ledges. Rock Outcrop. WVBG.
  • *Rhychostegium (Steerecleus) serrulatum. Beaked Comb Moss. Soil, tree bases, & rocks. Eastern North America and tropical America.
  • **Schistidium apocarpum. Black Rock Moss. Sessile Grimmia. Calcareous dry rocks in open.
  • Sphagnum lescurii. Cowhorn Peat Moss. Alder-bulrush-sedge wetlands. Along edge of Tibbs Run reservoir.
  • Sphagnum fimbriatum. Fringed Peatmoss. Alder-bulrush-sedge wetlands, slightly wetter microhabitats than S. lescurii. Found in hummocks in reservoir near Outlet Tower.
  • Sphagnum rubellum. Red Peatmoss. Organic matter in montane glades. Edge of Reservoir
  • *Thuidium delicatulum. Delicate Fern Moss. Very moist to wet substrata (soil, rocks, logs). North America, Iceland, & Latin America.
  • Tortella humilis. Tiny Tornado Moss. Soil & tree bases. Also in Africa & South America.
  • Ulota crispa. Crispy Ulota. Tree trunks & limbs. (New addition 2014)
  • *Weissia controversa. Weiss’ Puzzle Moss. Soil in disturbed open habitats. Both hemispheres, including Australia & New Zealand. (New addition 2014)

No asterisk means: Circumboreal-Montane; non-tropical North America and Eurasia.
One asterisk means *Endemic to North America (usually Eastern North America), may extend to Tropical America
Double asterisk means **Extends to Australia and/or New Zealand
Triple asterisk means ***Disjunct distribution such as Eastern North and Eastern Asia only

Common Names are taken (generally) from McKnight et al. (2012) for mosses, Brodo et al. (2001) for lichens, Cobb et al. (2005) for ferns & club-mosses, British Bryological Society (modified as needed) for liverworts.

Liverworts

(Alphabetical by Genus)
  • Bazzania trilobata. Common Bazzania. Soil over siliceous rocks, often by streams.
  • Calypogeia muelleriana. Muellers Pouchwort. Peaty soil, sandstone ledges by streams.
  • *Calypogeia sullivantii. Sullivant’s Pouchwort.. Steep streambank in hemlock stand. Eastern North America, mainly Appalachian
  • *Calypogeia fissa (L.) Raddi. Notched Pouchwort. Moist soil over sandstone, trail & streambanks.
  • *Cephaloziella hampeana (Nees) Schiffn. Hampe’s Threadwort. Sandstone, mosses, humus
  • Cephalozia lunulifolia. Moon-leaved Pincerwort.
  • Frullania eboracensis. Smooth cupwort. Tree trunks.
  • *Jubula pennsylvanica. Dark Cupwort. Drippy ledges & steep sandstone in ravines & gorges. Eastern North America, Mainly Appalachian.
  • *Jungermannia crenuliformis. Redhair Flapwort. Wet acidic rocks by streams.
  • *Odontoschisma prostratum. Creeping Flapwort. Acidic moist soil & wood. Unglaciated Appalachians & West Indies.
    Nowellia curvifolia. Rusty Nowellia. Moist to soggy acidic logs.
  • *Pallavicinia lyellii. Ribbonwort. Wet graminoids & bryophytes in seepy habitats.
  • Pellia epiphylla. Overleaf Pellia. Moist streambanks & roadbanks. North America & Europe.
  • Scapania nemorea. Grove Earwort. Wet streamside rocks & soil. Eastern. North America & Eurasia,
  • Scapania undulata. Water Earwort. Acidic rocks in streams, often submerged. Eastern North America & Eurasia.
  • Syzygiella (Jamesoniella) autumnalis. Autumnwort. Soil, rotten wood, logs in cove forests & hemlock stands

No asterisk means: Circumboreal-Montane; non-tropical North America and Eurasia.
One asterisk means *Endemic to North America (usually Eastern North America), may extend to Tropical America
Double asterisk means **Extends to Australia and/or New Zealand
Triple asterisk means ***Disjunct distribution such as Eastern North and Eastern Asia only

Common Names are taken (generally) from McKnight et al. (2012) for mosses, Brodo et al. (2001) for lichens, Cobb et al. (2005) for ferns & club-mosses, British Bryological Society (modified as needed) for liverworts.

Lichens

 

A. ON TREES

  • Candelaria concolor: Candleflame Lichen, Tiny, yellow species often confined to cracks in rough bark. U.S. & Western Canada.
  • Flavoparmelia caperata. Common Green Shield Lichen. Very common on bark, also on rock. Eastern NA north of Florida. Also Eurasia.
  • Heterodermia obscurata. Orange-tinted fringe lichen. On shaded bark, often with mosses. Eastern US, Appalachians north.
  • Imshaugia aleurites: Salted Starburst Lichen. On old wood railings at the old spillway overlook. (Resembles Physcia but chemically distinct; also isidiate unlike Physcia).Eastern North America north of Florida & Canada.
  • Myelochroa aurulenta: (Parmelina aurulenta). Powdery axil-bristile lichen. On shaded bark. Common, with yellow medulla, abundant soredia and no apothecia (generally). E. U. S.
  • Punctelia rudecta. Rough Speckled Shield Lichen. Common on bark in exposed areas. E. U. S. Isidiate.
  • Punctelia caseana (subrudecta). Powdered Speckled Shield Lichen. Bark, open areas, E. U. S. Sorediate.
  • Parmelia sulcata. Hammered shield lichen. On bark, usually common.. Great Lakes and New England, south to Appalachians. Cracked & “hammered”, sorediate.
  • Phaeophyscia adiastola. Powder-tipped shadow lichen. Often among mosses in moist areas. Coarse marginal soredia, black rhizines may have white tips.
  • Phaeophyscia rubropulchra. Orange-cored shadow lichen. Often on shaded bark. Eastern U.S.
  • Physcia americana. Powdery rosette lichen. Often on shaded bark. Eastern U.S.
  • Physcia stellaris. Star rosette lichen. Often found on fallen branches and bark of dead trees. Eastern US.
  • Physcia millegrana. Mealy rosette lichen. Very common on rough bark. Eastern US.

B. ON ROCKS

  • Leptogium sp. Jellyskin lichen. Identification to species uncertain, possibly of special interest according to Don Flenniken. On moist rocks making up the wall at the old spillway.The photobiont is a cyanobacterium (Nostoc). Its “Achilles heel” is acidic rock.
  • Xanthoparmelia conspersa. Peppered rock shield lichen. On rocks, often in exposed areas,. Eastern US north of Florida.
  • Lasallia papulosa. Common Toadskin. On sloping to vertical rocks.
  • Umbilicaria mammulata. Smooth Rock Tripe. On large rocks in exposed areas. Great Lakes and Appalachians. This is the common rock tripe in our area. It can turn pale under lower light conditions and resemble the rare frosted rock tripe (U. americana).

A. CLADONIA-FORM. Both squamules (sod-flakes) & fruticose podetia present.

  • Cladonia apodocarpa. Stalkless Cladonia. Usually sterile but the large squamules are indicative.
  • Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata. Ladder lichen. Eastern & Western North America. Soil.
  • Cladonia coniocraea. Common Powderhorn. Eastern US north of Florida. North America & Eurasia. On moist logs in shaded areas; also among mosses.
  • Cladonia chlorophaea complex. Mealy Pixie-cup. Several chemically related species with C. grayi as the most common strain. Soil, wood, stumps, tree bases, soil-covered rock. Exposed or shaded areas, often among mosses. North America & Eurasia. “Mealy” due to soredia (dust-like starter lichens) in cup.
  • Cladonia cristatella. British Soldiers. Usually common on exposed soil, also on wood, logs, and stumps. Eastern US. A closely related species occurs in Japan. Not found in Britain! Recognized by bright red “coats” that are not dusty (sorediate) & dense branching above.
  • Cladonia fimbriata. Trumpet Lichen. On logs and exposed soil. North America & Eurasia.
  • Cladonia macilenta. Lipstick Powder Horn. On dry wood, stumps, and soil. Throughout North America.
  • Cladonia peziziformis (capitata). Turban Lichen. Brown, turban-like apothecia. On exposed soil. Eastern North America
  • Cladonia pleurota. Red-fruited Pixie Cup. Wood, humus, and soil.
    Eastern US north of Gulf States
  • Cladonia subcariosa (polycarpoides). Peg Lichen. On exposed soil. Eastern US. Peg-like stalks (podetia) ending in brown apothecia (spore-bearing bodies).
  • Cladonia ramulosa. Short-branched Lichen. On exposed soil among grasses. Eastern US north of Florida.
  • Cladonia rei. Wand Lichen. On exposed soil. North America excluding southern parts.

B. FRUTICOSE. No obvious Squamules; not Cladonia-form.

  • Cladonia (Cladina) subtenuis. Dixie Reindeer Lichen. Dry, often sandy soil. Only reindeer lichen with distribution centered in Virginia & the most common reindeer lichen in Southeast.

A. ON SOIL.

  • Dibaeis baeomyces. Pink Earth Lichen. On exposed soil; one of the first lichens to consolidate disturbed ground.Eastern US north of Florida. Forms a white crust on the soil and may produce stalks (podetia) with pink apothecia. It is really a hybrid crustose-fruticose lichen.

B. ON & IN ROCK

  • Acarospora fuscata: Brown Cobblestone Lichen.On large rocks in open or shaded areas.
  • Aspicilia (Lecanora) cinerea. Cinder lichen. On large rocks in partial sun. North America.
  • Micarea erratica. Small Dot Lichen. On exposed rocks. Domed, unrimmed, confluent black apothecia and a thin gray thallus. Common on rocks in disturbed areas by reservoir.
  • Rhizocarpon reductum: Grey Map Lichen. On exposed rocks.
  • Porpidia albocaerulescens. Smoky-eye Boulder Lichen. On moist siliceous pebbles & boulders. Shaded areas. Eastern US.
  • Porpidia crustulata. Concentric Boulder Lichen. On pebbles & boulders. Also found on disturbed soil around reservoir.

C. ON & IN BARK

  • Arthonia caesia. Frosted Comma Lichen. Bark, usually smooth. NE US and Great Lakes.
  • Lecanora strobilina: Mealy Rim- lichen. On bark and twigs in shade or open areas. Eastern North America. With a good hand-lens, you can see rimmed spore-cup s (apothecia) with orangish-reddish interiors on smooth-barked trees on the dam.The other species in this group are greenish and “dusty” (sorediate) except for the last one (which resembles black warts on green bark).
  • Loxospora pustulata. Pustulate Crust Lichen. On smooth bark. Eastern north America.
  • Ochrolechia arborea: Tree Saucer Lichen. On smooth bark.
  • Trapeliopsis flexulosa. Board Lichen. Full sun, weathered fences, bark. On old wood railings at the old spillway overlook. Throughout North America.
  • Trypethelium virens. Speckled Blister Lichen. On bark of beech trees, immersed in bark with clusters of black perithecia bursting through. Eastern North America.

Lepraria sp. Dust lichen. Trees, moist rock walls (such as Spillway). Notice the different colors of different species (whitish to greenish to blue-green) and bodies that range from only entirely dust (lichen powder; starter lichens = clusters of fungus & algae) to almost lobed, with cobwebby fungal filaments underlying the dust.

No asterisk means: Circumboreal-Montane; non-tropical North America and Eurasia.
One asterisk means *Endemic to North America (usually Eastern North America), may extend to Tropical America
Double asterisk means **Extends to Australia and/or New Zealand
Triple asterisk means ***Disjunct distribution such as Eastern North and Eastern Asia only

Common Names are taken (generally) from McKnight et al. (2012) for mosses, Brodo et al. (2001) for lichens, Cobb et al. (2005) for ferns & club-mosses, British Bryological Society (modified as needed) for liverworts.

Lichen list courtesy of Don Flenniken (1933-2012) who found 41 species on the 2009 WVBG Walk.
Note: Geographic distributions cited are incomplete and preliminary.

Club Mosses

Separate, Ancient Evolutionary Line – Neither Ferns nor Mosses
(Alphabetical by Genus)
  • *Dendrolycopodium obscurum. Flat-branched tree clubmoss. Moist acidic soils. E. N. A.
  • *Diphasiastrum digitatum. Southern ground cedar. Fan clubmoss. Woods and fields, E.N.A.
  • Lycopodium clavatum. Common clubmoss. Running clubmoss. North America. South America. Eurasia, & Africa.

No asterisk means: Circumboreal-Montane; non-tropical North America and Eurasia.
One asterisk means *Endemic to North America (usually Eastern North America), may extend to Tropical America
Double asterisk means **Extends to Australia and/or New Zealand
Triple asterisk means ***Disjunct distribution such as Eastern North and Eastern Asia only

Common Names are taken (generally) from McKnight et al. (2012) for mosses, Brodo et al. (2001) for lichens, Cobb et al. (2005) for ferns & club-mosses, British Bryological Society (modified as needed) for liverworts.

Ferns

 

  • ***Asplenium platyneuron. Ebony Spleenwort. Shady woods, fields, & rock outcrops. Eastern North America & South Africa. Disjunct distribution.
  • *Athyrium felix-femina. Lady Fern. Woods & fields. Eastern North America.
  • *Dennstaedtia punctilobula. Hay-scented fern. Woods & fields. Eastern North America.
  • *Dryopteris intermedia. Evergreen Wood Fern. Woods. Eastern North America.
  • *Onoclea sensibilis. Sensitive Fern. Swamps & wet woods. Eastern North America.
  • ***Osmunda cinnamomea. Cinnamon fern. Swamps & wet woods. Eastern North America, Mexico, West Indies, Asia & South America. Disjunct distribution.
  • ***Osmunda claytoniana. Interrupted Fern. Eastern North America. Asia. Disjunct.
  • *Thelypteris noveboracensis. New York Fern. Woods, & edge of swamps. Eastern North America.

No asterisk means: Circumboreal-Montane; non-tropical North America and Eurasia.
One asterisk means *Endemic to North America (usually Eastern North America), may extend to Tropical America
Double asterisk means **Extends to Australia and/or New Zealand
Triple asterisk means ***Disjunct distribution such as Eastern North and Eastern Asia only

Common Names are taken (generally) from McKnight et al. (2012) for mosses, Brodo et al. (2001) for lichens, Cobb et al. (2005) for ferns & club-mosses, British Bryological Society (modified as needed) for liverworts.

 

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